The River Nile and Egypt
in the Mosaics of the Middle East

by Basema Hamarneh

The River Nile and Egypt inspired the mosaicists of the ancient world and offered a wide range of themes recalling the river valley with its characteristic animals and birds, its rich cities, temples, shrines, inhabitants and trade.
The images of a nilotic and maritime character, whose origins can be traced back to prototypes from the Hellenistic tradition, became commonly used in mosaics of the oriental provinces of the empire, occupying at the same time a relevant position in the pavement. In fact, they were introduced in the decorative programs of republican Italy, and during the first centuries of the empire they reached North Africa. 1 Only by the end of the fifth century did they appear sporadically in some Middle Eastern pavements, while during the sixth-eighth centuries nilotic themes became a constant presence in the pavements of churches and private houses in Syria, Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda and Provincia Arabia.
The nilotic motifs along with other iconographic subjects used in mosaic pavements underwent the same evolution, which allows us to ascertain that during the fourth-fifth centuries, their absence is due to the gradual transformation of the pavement morphology, which led to a definitive detachment from the classical background and offered a new repertoire of iconographic models. At the same time, an inverse process took place from the second half of the fifth century and during the sixth century, showing clearly how elements of classical origin, including an increased range of personifications, 2 gradually became employed in church pavements, finding their way into the repertoire of mosaic workshops. 3
It seems clear that the fortune of nilotic themes is due to both its richly decorative character and the wide range of creatures portrayed, as well as the only limited space needed when used in a synthetic manner. It is necessary to underline likewise, that its widespread use is due, most of all, to their generic meaning or rather whenever sea or water in general were to be represented. Finally both the vivid colors and figurative variety of the characteristic Nile Delta habitat certainly attracted the attention of the donors. 4
A useful point of departure is the analysis of the evolution of the nilotic themes that have come down to us. They asily divide into three major groups, forming what can be defined as "prototypes": the first group closely associated with the classical background showing the River Nile as a deity; 5 the second group where cities and architectonic elements dominate the composition, and the third group of landscape, which reflects elements derived directly from nature. But it seems necessary to reaffirm that these three principal groups are subject to exchanges and interactions in perfect harmony with the rest of the iconographic themes of the mosaic pavement. The joint arrangement of all three groups usually occupies a large pavement surface, while it is also possible to find more simple formulas with idiograms that evoke freely some aspects of the nilotic composition.

The first group of the themes mentioned above, derives, most probably, from cultural pagan inspiration, 6 showing the apotheosis of the river god Nile, seen as an adult male settled in profile on the Delta shore and holding a cornucopia, the symbol of abundance and fertility. Around him it is possible to observe a cane fence and nilombos flowers, along with typical nilotic reptiles and birds, such as crocodiles, ibis, herons and so on. 7 Undulate dark stripes stand for the flowing water, while putti gathered around him symbolize the river branches (stoma). 8 Some times the putti are set into sailing boats loaded with amphoras as allegories of transport and trade.
In mosaic pavements, it is important to establish, that on one hand, the same subjects seem to offer us a direct reference to sculptural prototypes - especially those with the river deity - while on the other hand they seem to be partially inspired by the popular Nile festival, still celebrated by the Christians in the fourth century within the thanksgiving ritual for the annual inundation. 9 In these compositions, probably of Egyptian origin, the river god is set, in a central or evident position and dimensions, on a four-footed beast (a hippopotamus sometimes substituted by a crocodile), clasping a cornucopia. The river flowing beneath his feet is populated with animals, nilombos and cane plants and on the upper side is the nilometer (symbol of the level reached by the river water). The scene is completed with figures that bring gifts to the god Nile, hunting scenes and putti in sailing boats. Within a wider repertoire it is also possible to find the personification of Egypt (Aigypto) holding a cornucopia, along with both the city of Alexandria and Pharos the lighthouse, as in the recently discovered fifth-century pavement at Sippori in Israel. 10
The pavement of the house of Kyrios Leontis at Beisan - Scythopolis, 11 even though it is of mediocre execution, shows how the mosaicists have tried to follow more or less the basic planning: the river god Nile is on the right side seated on a hippopotamus (or a crocodile) with cane stream in one hand, and a quail in the other; while the nilometer, measuring from 11 to 17 - IA-IZ, is positioned on the left side along with a modest edifice with columns that stands for Alexandria (Alexandria). The black undulated lines, the allegory of flowing water, are accompanied by the sailing boat, nilombos and fish. The mosaicists have also introduced a personalized element with a lion trying to devour a bull, with clear apotropaic meaning, 12 substituting for the popular scene of the crocodile devouring a buffalo, 13 (as the crocodile and the donkey from el-Alia - Sousse Museum; the sixth century pavement of the southeast chapel of the cathedral of Cyrene in Libya and on a ceiling wooden beam from the church of S. Catherine in Sinai), or likewise taking the space of the habitual hunting scene. 14
It is more common, though, to find architectonic elements that stand for Egypt: an edifice or a city symbol with walls, monumental columns topped with statues and the Pharos lighthouse. 15 This ideogram seems to be adapted to give a realistic aspect, taking the observer through the river delta, giving him from time to time some conventional elements of real existing cities and monuments. According to some theories, these elements are to be regarded as geographical representations, 16 but that seems quite difficult to accept, as a realistic image must include the river Nile with the cities located along it in an order that in someway reflects reality, as we can view in the surviving segment of the Madaba map. 17
It is also common to find the entire border, frieze or panels occupied chiefly by architectonic elements related to the Nile delta, their use serving only as a realistic depiction of the nilotic subject, being considered, most probably, symbolic images of the river itself or more generally of Egypt. They were used perhaps to refer to the reading of sacred books where the sites associated with the Israelites were mentioned, in order to offer somehow a realistic background to those contemplating it.
City symbols are seen from the pavement found in Jordan at Umm al-Manabi', 18 the churches of St. John the Baptist and Ss. Peter and Paul in Gerasa and the rich eighth-century border-frame of the St. Stephen church at Umm al-Rasas. The composition of Umm al-Manabi' showed originally the river god on the left side, where only the inscription Nilw survives, and probably a hunting scene on the right side, as Glueck recalls a hand holding a spear. At the center of the composition stands a nilometer decorated on top with a lotus flower (with the signs from 10 to 18 - IA, IB, IG, ID, IS, IJ, IH). On the lower side an edifice identified by the legend in Greek Egypto is surrounded by undulate horizontal stripes of water with a fish and a sailing boat.
At the church of St. John the Baptist at Gerasa built in 531 A.D. where it is possible to view in the passage from the elaborate exedra to the central rectangular-shaped pavement, a series of cities among which we can recognize Alexandria, Canopo and Menuthi set between palm trees. Other anonymous buildings, shrines and people moving along with animals towards them (allusions to pilgrimage or trade) occupy the spaces that survive in the same pavement, probably derived from the same Nile delta; while the external border underneath the cities is decorated with nilotic motives extending like a ribbon with birds, fish and nilombos plants. The considerable dimensions of the pavement frame gives us a subjective idea of the original aspect of the elaborate mosaic floor. 19
Deriving from the same origin seems to be the surviving panel of the central nave of the church of Ss. Peter and Paul at Gerasa (first half of the sixth century), showing the Pharos lighthouse, Alexandria in the center and Memphis among fruit trees. Underneath the city-symbols remains of nilombos indicate the presence of a richly extending nilotic motive. 20
A similar sequence appears in the mosaic of the chapel of Haditha, 21 where it is possible to see under the configuration of Agupto, two dark stripes that stand for water. The panel is completed by putti in a sailing boat along with fish, ducks and nilombos plants. The graphic output of the whole composition, even though it is of modest execution, shows clearly the popularity and the diffusion of the motive.
Recalling a similar atmosphere is the contemporary panel from the northeast chapel of Qasr el-Libia in eastern Libya, where a crocodile on the left side of the composition is trying to devour a cow (or buffalo); the composition is completed with boatmen, fish and typical nilotic flora. The Qasr el-Libia scene is to be classified as generic, freely inspired by nilotic landscape, but it shows at the same time how common the nilotic elements were in the Justinian period. 22

Particularly curious is the church of Qasr el-Libia pavement which shows the sequence of isolated diagrams partially inspired by a nilotic atmosphere with sea creatures (like the ketos etc.) between fish, shells, ducks and nilombos plants. The last row shows the Pharos lighthouse crowned by the statue of Helios; two persons in a sailing boat are located in the adjacent right panel. 23 The diffusion of nilotic motives of the same matrix are found in the north aisle of the Cyrene cathedral and in the southeast chapel, both dated to the sixth century. 24
The second half of the sixth century is the date of the pavement mosaic of chapel A at Zay el-Gharbi, 25 in the province of Palaestina Prima. The long and narrow hall of the ecclesiastical complex was decorated by a nilotic scene. The two parts show two sailing boats with two figures in the left one (probably not fishermen). A heron seems to occupy the space between the boats, while within the thick black undulate stripes that stand for the Nile water it is possible to identify a crocodile and a fish; the composition has been integrated with nilombos plants.
The nilotic habitat, which is a fixed element in all the examples cited above, is chiefly composed of a pure landscape with a relatively wide selection of realistically depicted birds like ibis, herons, cranes, flamingos, waders, seagulls, palmipeds, and ducks. Sometimes it is possible to note the appearance of some imaginary winged creatures, used probably by small workshops. In fact local birds are shown with the addition of a long beak and thin legs (like the mosaic of the presbytery of the south church of Umm al-Rasas). The animals like hippopotami are replaced by typically local ones like bulls and lions, while crocodiles are preserved as an important element of the Nile delta. The plants and flowers are the cup-shaped, fan-shaped, lotus and nilombos; the water of the river is usually filled with fish, mollusks, shellfish and crustaceans. This variety demonstrates a direct acknowledgment of the different species of animals and birds more than their places of origin.
As a direct reflection of this naturalistic current is the fifth- century pavement of the church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes of et-Tabgha, 26 where the rectangular floor is populated with birds, nilombos fans and cup-shaped flowers. The ibis, herons and ducks are portrayed in a naturalistic attitude, in juxtaposed levels creating a perspective of flight, while some modest architectonic elements like buildings and columns are located in the middle of the composition.
Within the rich landscape among which birds and fish are rendered in naturalistic attitudes, the motif of the duck, quail or turtledove on a nest made inside a nilombos flower seems particularly popular in all the nilotic mosaics discovered; 27 as for example in the church of the Multiplication of Loaves and Fish at et-Tabgha; the Hippolitos Hall in Madaba; 28 Ss. Lot and Procopius at Khirbet el-Mukhayyat. 29 Particularly interesting is the mosaic of the presbytery of the north church of Esbous (Hesban) where the mosaicists have created a similar motif of a turtledove set on a nest made of an imaginary flower. 30
The synthesis of both geographic and naturalistic elements is well reflected in the eighth-century border-frame of the Church of S. Stephen at Umm al-Rasas. The black uniform tesserae background allegory of water is coursed by a rich nilotic landscape, containing all the ingredients of the classical repertoire. There are sailing boats and pairs of oars with putti in humorous attitudes, sailing and fishing, seen while capturing fish and ducks, in a rich environment of molluscs and shells, while in the north segment it is possible to view a partially disfigured crocodile. The composition is arranged among nilombos and papyri plants. The unified border-frame is interrupted by ten city symbols of the Nile Delta; beginning with the east segment we have Tamiathis (Damietta), Panau, Pilusin (Pelusio), Antinau, Eraklion, Alexandria, Kasin (Casio), Thenesos, Kynopolis, and Pseudostomon. 31 The order of the placement of the cities seems to reflect reality. Five of them find parallels in the surviving portion of the Madaba map, 32 and it seems highly probable that the remainder five cities were represented originally in the now-missing parts of the map itself. This important border offers us a close view of the continuity of a singular tendency to employ correct geographic locations in a naturalistic nilotic composition. It shows at the same time the probable relation between the Madaba map and the chronologically later S. Stephen pavement (perhaps a common prototype) that can be supposed within the sampling of the same Delta cities.
In church pavements the nilotic motives are frequently in narrow border-frames, and sometimes they develop, as we have seen, as free compositions upon all the surface of the nave. 33 In the territory of Jordan, the scene appears in the sixth century in the space between columns, as in the church of Ss. Lot and Procopius - Khirbet el-Mukhayyat, where the south panel shows a densely arranged composition with ducks, ibis and fish among lotus flowers; the same side is decorated with two palmipeds in heraldic stance. The north side shows a scene with a pair of oars loaded with amphoras, a fisherman and fish set on the sides of a central architectonic composition with a clear maritime and fluvial allusion. 34
The same simple typology is used in some Syrian mosaic pavements, like in the 516 A.D. church of Tell Hauwash (east of Apamea), where a panel with fish, birds and nilombos plant is seen, and the long decorative frieze of the church of Oumnir that shows sailing boats loaded with amphorae among fish, birds and lotus plants. 35 At Sarrin located south of Harran a nilotic border shows crocodiles with fish, fishing putti between nilombos plants, ibis and herons. 36 The recently discovered pavement of the cathedral of Hama, dated to 412 A.D.., shows the south passage decorated with a nilotic scene, according to the usual formula. Thick dark stripes stand for Nile water, completed with fish, cane plants, and a sailing boat loaded with amphorae, while the ibis, herons and ducks, set on a nest of nilombos plants seem very similar to the at-Tabgha mosaic. 37 The 442 A.D. pavement of the presbytery of the church of Tayybat al-Imam (Hama district) seems to be unusual; it shows typical nilotic fauna within the river formed by the flow of the four rivers of Paradise. 38
A more complex process concerns those mosaic carpets, where the allusion to the maritime theme can be identified only through classical personifications freely inspired by some aspects of the nilotic-aquatic theme, showing an iconographic alternative offered by local mosaicists. Belonging to this tendency are the images discovered in the church of Priest Wa'il of 586 A.D. (Umm al-Rasas) where the figure of the Ketos is employed along with generic fishing scenes; 39 the Ketos also appears in the first register of the north church at Umm al-Rasas (dated between 578/9 and 593/4), 40 and the Abuss seen as a sea creature at the 586 A.D. Bishop Sergios church (Umm er-Rasas), 41 along with images depicting fishermen and fish. As we have seen so far all three monuments are related to the second half of the sixth century during the episcopate of Sergios I.
Related to this iconographic innovation are the lambs with an undulating posterior part of their body that ends with a fish tail (as in the south panel of the church of Ss. Lot and Procopius at Khirbet el-Mukhayyat). Also new is the image of the external border of the Hippolitos hall at Madaba, where a lion and a bull facing each other are rendered as marine creatures.
In cases when the mosaic pavement does not provide a maritime or nilotic scene developed on a large scale, the mosaicists in the sixth century preferred the use of synthetic schemes, where the single element gives shape to the entire theme, as for example the single fish found in the space between the pillars and the nilotic birds used to decorate the frieze of the central nave in the church of Deacon Thomas at 'Uyun Musa, that found in the nave of the chapel of Priest John at Khirbet el-Mukhayyat; the herons in heraldic stance in the new baptistery of Mount Nebo, those found in the presbytery of the north church at Esbous-Hesban and many others.
Isolated nilotic motives are also found within individual panels as in the western section of the Hippolitos Hall discovered in Madaba in 1905 with ibis, turtledoves on a flower nest, seagull gliding down on water surface and other birds. The typology of the mostly local plants and flowers shows the dualism achieved by the craftsmen of Madaba in combining nilotic motifs and local patterns. Sporadic use is attested in some pavements,like the single turtledove within two nilombos flowers that decorates the angle of the pavement of the chapel of Khirbet Munyah, about 6 km northwest of Gerasa; 42 as well as the sixth-century panel of the house of Ktisis in Antioch with birds and nilombos flowers distributed individually within a rectangular grating. 43
Apparently related to this current is the sixth-century Massuh upper church pavement, heavily covered by geometric motives formed by octagonal panels, the first row to the east shows two isolated subjects inspired by nilotic themes, within the disfigured panels, one shows a boat on water and a hand holding the end of an oar, while the second is decorated with a fishing scene, probably a fisherman with a rod and a hook. 44 Single nilombos and lotus flowers decorate the geometric composition of the central nave of the eighth-century lower church of Quweismeh in the Philadelphia-Amman district, 45 with the pavement of the annex chapel that shows a series of isolated buildings.
Additional evidence for stylistic evolution are the emblems classified as "marine still life". Those compositions include some elements of a nilotic nature within a purely geometric floor, for example fish on plates, shells, lobsters and so on, as in the lateral aisles of the Church of S. Stephen at Umm al-Rasas, intended to provide a more generic cosmic atmosphere. 46
Yet, as we have seen, the church pavements of the early fifth century do not have nilotic scenes, probably due to the scarce success of the theme, or depart willingly from classical schemes, creating at the same time a detachment between the classical-pagan tradition and the new Christian iconography. The allegories along with the personifications return to the repertory of mosaics by the end of the fifth century, while by the beginning of the sixth century they seem indispensable in the pavements discovered in the important centers of the empire such as Antioch and Alexandria, signalling the revival of the Hellenistic tradition, spreading afterwards to the minor centers of the Middle East.
The naturalistic elements along with the nilotic motives depicted seem to benefit from this atmosphere, underlining the unity of the cosmos, displaying at the same time water in an original artistic way. It seems difficult to see an allegorical - biblical significance behind the nilotic themes as they referred generically to elements of creation.
The nilotic patterns derive from Egyptian origins, especially those compositions with the nilometer, the Pharos lighthouse, the reclining figure of the river deity, the configuration of Alexandria and other delta cities, while the naturalistic background, an important ingredient that completes the scene, can be either of Egyptian provenance or typically local. Of particular importance are the iconographic subjects elaborated by local craftsmen seeking the same result of depicting water. Nilotic and maritime images found in our territory with its dry climate, as well as the rest of the motifs of the pavement, where we can see trees always laden with fruit, numerous animals and birds, were also probably intended to symbolize the welfare sought by the inhabitants.
The renewal of interest in the river deity and other themes of pagan origin is due to also to the celebrations of the Nile festival by the Christians during the Byzantine period, giving the event an aspect of thanksgiving. Evidence of these feasts can be deduced from a hymn addressed to the river Nile in a sixth century A.D. papyri text from Antinoë, in which the river is mentioned as the "most fortunate" and "bringer of miracles in all Egypt", appealing at the end to Christ, the benefactor and source of grace. This shows that the persisting dualism between the antique pagan mentality and the Christian faith well reflected in the contemporary pavement art. 47 The pagan subjects seem to be completely deprived from their cultural meaning and became purely decorative compositions in the "new" Christian pavements.
Finally, at the same time that the nilotic motifs present an absolutely realistic aspect, they also harken back to antique Hellenistic motifs ,deriving, evidently, from the rich repertory of "genre scenes". Relating to both language and atmosphere expressed in the remainder of the mosaic pavement, they draw abundantly from the traditional figurative heritage that as we known had a relevant fortune in the art of the Roman provinces.


1. Foucher 1965), pp. 137-145.

2. Maguire 1993), p. 143.

3. Kitzinger 1951), pp. 209-223.

4. Balty 1984), pp. 827-834.

5. An unassigned coin, minted in Alexandria - with the bust of Serapis on the obverse and river Nile on the riverse - has an inscription regarding the river deity Deo sancto Nilo. See Maguire, Christians, Pagans, cit. n. 2, pp. 150-151.

6. Isolated nilotic motifs can be found on late Republican period coins, interpreted as symbols of the Isis cult. See Alföldi-Rosenbaum 1973), pp. 151-152; Alföldi-Rosenbaum and Ward-Perkins 1980), p. 48.

7. Prototypes are common in sculpture like the statue of the river god Nile in the Vatican Museum. See Adriani 1961), pp. 61-65.

8. Donner 1984), pp. 256-257.

9. Maguire, Cristians, Pagans, cit. n. 2, p. 152; the pagan ritual is rendered in the pannel of the 'Nile Villa' at Leptis Magna. Cfr. Foucher, Les mosaïques nilotiques, cit. n. 1, fig.1.

10. The pavement, dated to the fifth century, was built under the patronage of Bishop Eutropius. See Netzer and Weiss 1993), pp. 190-196; Z. Weiss and E. Netzer, Zippori 1992-1993, Excavations and Surveys in Israel 14 (1994), pp. 40-46.

11. N. Zori, The house of Kyrios Leontis at Beth Shean, IEJ 16 (1966), pp. 123-134; R. Ovadiah. and Ovadiah 1987), pl. XXXII.

12. The same subject of the lion and the buffalo is depicted in the Sippori pavement along with other scenes of combat between animals as a bear devouring a wild boar and a panther pouncing upon a dear. Cfr. Netzer and Weiss, IEJ, cit. n. 10, pp. 190-196.

13. Cfr. Alföldi-Rosenbaum and Ward-Perkins, Justinianic Mosaic, cit. n. 6, pp. 45-56.

14. The hunting scenes are frequently used in nilotic compositions as in the Sippori pavement mentioned above; also as the border-frame of the villa pavement of Beit Jibrin where it is possible to observe an elaborated nilotic motive, birds, nilombos and fan-shaped flowers along with architettonical elements. See L. H. Vincent, Une villa gréco-romain a Beit Djebrin, RB 31 (1922), pp. 265-266; pl. X 3-4.

15. See Duval 1994), pp. 187-192.

16. Alföldi-Rosenbaum and Ward-Perkins, Justinianic Mosaic, cit. n. 6, p. 49.

17. The Madaba map presents the union between both classical description of the Nile Delta and an itinerary, with the major cities like Pelusium and Memphis correctly situated, giving at the same time a vision of the major road system in the Delta itself. See Donner, ADAJ, cit. n. 8, p. 257.

18. The pavement went completely destroyed during the process of removal. See Glueck 1951), pp. 229-230; Augustinovich and Bagatti 1952, pp. 285-289; Piccirillo 1981), pp. 21-23.

19. See Kraeling 1938), pp. 241-244; 324-329, pls. LXVI-LXX; Piccirillo, Chiese e Mosaici, cit. n. 18, pp. 39-40; Piccirillo 1993), pp. 288-289.

20. Cfr. Kraeling, Gerasa, cit. n. 18, pp. 251-254, 333-336, pl. LXXV; Piccirillo, Chiese, cit. n. 18, pp. 41-42.

21. Avi Yonah 1972), pp. 118-122.

22. The church with the adjacent chapel found in the modern Qasr el-Libia probably the site of ancient Olbia refounded by Justinian. See Maguire 1987), pp. 44-45; Alföldi-Rosenbaum and Ward-Perkins, Justinianic Mosaic, cit. n. 6, pp. 46-49.

23. Alföldi-Rosenbaum and Ward-Perkins, Justinianic Mosaic, cit. n. 6; pp. 128-133.

24. Ward-Perkins 1958), pp. 183-192.

25. See Piccirillo 1982), pp. 363-364.

26. See Schneider 1937), pp. 2-17, pl. A-B.

27. See Balty, Thémes nilotiques, note 4, p. 831.

28. Piccirillo 1989), pp. 52-55.

29. Piccirillo, Chiese, cit. n. 28, p. 186.

30. See Lawlor, The 1978 excavation of the North church at Hesban, Jordan: a preliminary report, ADAJ 24 (1980), pp. 95-105, Piccirillo, Mosaics, cit. n. 19, pp. 250-251.

31. See Piccirillo 1994), pp. 141-144.

32. Piccirillo, Chiese, cit. n. 28, pp. 299-301.

33. Cfr. Balty 1990), pp. 60-61.

34. Piccirillo, Chiese, cit. note 28, 1989, pp. 184-187.

35. Balty 1977), pp. 136-137; Balty1984), pp. 459-461.

36. Balty, La mosaïque, cit. n. 33, p. 62.

37. See Zaqzuq 1995), pp. 237-238, pl. 1.

38. This composition shows indirectly the existing relation between the four rivers of paradise and the river Nile. See Zaqzuq, Arte Profane, cit. n. 37, pp. 238-240, pl. 19; Cfr. also H. Maguire, The Nile and the Rivers of the Paradise, in this volume.

39 The Ketos mythological figure consists of a male bust and body of a marine creature, holding an oar with fish around him. Cfr. Wages1986), p. 123; Piccirillo 1993), pp. 313-334.

40. Cfr. Bujard 1992), pp. 291-301.

41 Piccirillo, I mosaici del complesso, cit. n. 31, pp. 127-128.

42 Cfr. Piccirillo, Mosaics, cit. n. 19, p. 299.

43 Campbell 1988), p. 6, pl. 5.

44 Piccirillo 1983), p. 338.

45 Piccirillo 1984), pp. 329-340.

46 Elements of nilotic compositions seems used also for the decoration of chancel screen as the one discovered in the west church of Pella - Tabaqat Fahl with a flamingo, shell, polyp and a cup in a wreath. See Piccirillo, Mosaics, cit. n. 19, p. 331, pl. 701.

47 See Maguire, Christians, Pagans, cit. n. 2, p. 153; Hermann 1959), pp. 30-69.

This contribution was first published in: The Madaba Map Centenary, Jerusalem 1999, 185-189.

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