The Arabah and the Negev
99. Thamara - (Qasr al-Juhayniya ?/ 'Ayn al-Husb ?)
Locality on the borders of Judah, appearing as Hazazon-Tamar in Genesis 14:7, where it is described as a dwelling place of the Amorites between Kadesh and Sodom. This precludes the identification with En-Gedi attempted in II Chronicles 20:2. According to the Masoretic Text of I Kings 9:18, Solomon built "Tamar in the wilderness," but this reading is not certain as the parallel verse in II Chronicles 8:4 has Tadmor (Palmyra). Ezekiel lists it as a boundary point of the land of Israel, together with Meribath-Kadesh (47:19; 48:28). A Roman fort called Thamara is indicated on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman road map, and is also mentioned by the geographer Ptolemy and by Eusebius (Onom. 8: 6ff.), who places it one day's journey from Mampsis (Kurnub). It is also shown on the Madaba Map. Alt has identified the fort of Tamar with Qa\r al-Juhayniyya (present-day Mesad Tamar), but Aharoni has argued convincingly for an identification with Ayn al-Hu\b, where there are remains of a Roman fort, as well as Iron Age and Nabatean pottery.
Michael Avi-Yonah, Encyclopaedia Judaica, ad v. "Tamar"
Herbert Donner (The Mosaic Map of Madaba, Kampen 1992, 69)
Another Roman-Byzantie military post and important road station, mentioned on the Peutinger Plates and in Byzantine administrative texts. It is most probably identical with ruins near Ayn al-Arus, about 8 km southwest of the Dead Sea.
For more sources and bibliography see:
Tabula Imperii Romani. Iudaea - Palaestina (Jerusalem 1994) s.v. "Thamara", 247.
Map Section 8 Place Sources