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STUDIUM BIBLICUM FRANCISCANUM
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LINGUAGGIO EROTICO IN CANTICO E PROVERBI
A language of love Ü even of eros, is used to express the relationship between wisdom and men. This is a characteristic of Israel's sages, also found in Ben Sira and in the Wisdom of Solomon. An inquiry is conducted into some love terms, such as dwd, hbha, twja, axm - vqb, etc., both in the Song of Songs and in the Book of Proverbs. It reveals a close relationship between the wisdom books mentioned. It also shows how strong a force is love in human experience. Dame Wisdom present in creation reveals herself as the lover of men and their spouse. The biblical sages perceived that love and wisdom are two related realities, both divine and human, linking God, man and the world together.
Pgs. 25-45 [file in pdf format - 160 KB]
LA CONCORDANZA DEL PRONOME RELATIVO NEL GRECO BIBLICO
(L. Cignelli - G. C. Bottini)
In the course of the preparation of a Syntax of Biblical Greek for students in Biblical Studies the authors offer an essay on some aspects of the use of the relative pronoun. Being examined are the concord and connected syntactic phenomena: prolepsis, constructio praegnans, and the attraction of the relative pronoun. The subject has been treated on the basis of a large number of examples from the Septuagint and the New Testament. Such examples show the aptitude of the Greek language to express at the same time, freedom, conciseness, and originality of the construction of the simple sentence and of the complex sentence as well.
Pgs. 46-69 [file in pdf format - 352 KB]
GAL 1,1-5: STRUTTURA E LINEA DI PENSIERO
(A. M. Buscemi)
In the first part of the present study the A. seeks to define the limits of the pericope in question in order to determine its literary genre. Gal 1 follows accepted epistolary patterns of the Hellenistic period, which Paul adapted with suitable additions, for his pastoral goals. This study also describes the formal literary structure and content of the pericope. In the second part the A. considers the theological aspects of Gal 1,1-5, demonstrating the anticipation of the fundamental ideas of the letter: the Apostolate (1,11-21) and the Gospel (cc.3-4: doctrinal aspects; cc. 5-6: paraenetical aspects). Paul continually interwines these two themes, and for the most part he tends to amalgamate them, placing however the accent on the latter element, that is, the apostolate in function of the Gospel.
Pgs. 71-103 [file in pdf format - 344 KB]
RELIGIONE, NAZIONE E STATO
NEL VICINO ORIENTE ANTICO E NELLA BIBBIA
This essay attempts to trace a global view of the role the concepts of religion, nation, and state have played in the identity and self-consciousness of the ancient and modern peoples formed by the Middle Eastern mentality. These concepts have always been to varying degrees interwoven, tending in some cases, as in the ancient Mesopotamian culture, towards being completly intertwined. In the mentality attested to by the Old Testament, these tendencies were also present, but there is also a clear development marked out by the growing importance of the religious factor in national identity. On the other hand the nation and the land, both taken very concretely, are at the core of a religious identity based on the divine promise made to Abraham. In this regard, there is both a continuity and discontinuity between the Old Testament and Christianity, where faith has become the only factor for religious identity while nation and state are no longer given religious connotations. This essay intends to be helpful in showing the differencens between these mentalities, thus avoiding possible misunderstandings.
Pgs. 105-158 [file in pdf format - 392 KB]
DEMOCRAZIA E PARTECIPAZIONE NELLA CHIESA.
MODELLI DI COMPORTAMENTO DELLA GENERAZIONE APOSTOLICA
I tried to present some patterns of behaviour of the apostolic generation that could help to overcome the present difficulties of the Catholic Church. I chose three specific fields, where the democratic values of that generation can be shown at work: 1) the theological debate (Acts 15,1-34; Gal 2,11-14; 1 Cor 1,10-4,21; 1 Cor 15,12-19); 2) the nomination and election of candidates to the apostolic service (Acts 1,15-26) or to help that same service (Acts 6,1-6); and in the financial administration of money collected from different churches (2 Cor 8,16-21); 3) the apostolic authority and the freedom of conscience in Christ (Philemon). In each of these situations they showed frankness, publicity and openness, respect of others' opinions and conscience. If that behaviour was valid for the beginning of the Church, it's correct to suppose that it can be valid for our time too.
Pgs. 159-181 [file in pdf format - 152 KB]
L'APOCALITTICA GIUDEO-CRISTIANA E IL PROBLEMA DELLA SALVEZZA
The cosmological terminology of late Judaism has been used by Jewish Christians as a means to express their own theological conceptions. The cosmos had a tripartite structure: "coelestia", "terrestria", and "inferiora". On this basis, a mythical dress has been applied to the whole content of Christian revelation. The main beliefs concerning our Saviour and the Christians themselves were moulded into a cosmological terminology. This mythical structure preferred by the Jewish Christians in contradistinction to the Gentile Christians does not alter the biblical message but rather formulates it through images characteristic of the Semitic mind far from the abstract, philosophic categories of the Greeks.
Pgs. 183-210; Pls. 63-66 [file in pdf format - 176 KB]
LA POLEMIQUE CONTRE LES JUDEO-CHRETIENS
EN PESIQTA DE RAB KAHANA 15
Palestinian Rabbis redacted homelies known as Pesikta de Rav Kahana during the fifth Century. L. Baeck has shown that controversy towards the Christian faith is strong in the first two sermons. The present study focuses on PRK 15,1 in order to check Baeck's hypothesis. The analysis of the literary context and of the text itself is necessary before any hypothesis can be made. The last part of the study takes into consideration the possibility of controversy against Christians. PRK 15,1 insists exclusively on divine suffering, while Origen also teaches the incapacity of God to change. God is unchangeable and in one sense impassible. Jewish traditions frequently opposed Origen's affirmations.
Pgs. 211-226 [file in pdf format - 144 KB]
I DAYR DEL DIACONO TOMMASO ALLE 'UYUN MUSA - MONTE NEBO
The dayr of Deacon Thomas is the second Byzantine edifice which has been excavated by the Franciscan Biblical Institute at the 'Uyun Musa valley north of Mount Nebo. The edifice is basically composed by the three nave mosaiced church with a plain white mosaiced room on the southern wall followed by an open courtyard to the north of it. According to archaeological and stylistic data, the dayr was built in the first half of the VIth Century and abandoned in the Umayyad period. The main feature of the dayr is the mosaic floor with which the mosaicists have lavishly decorated the church. This mosaic is one of the best preserved mosaic floors of the Madaba School of mosaicists.
Pgs. 227-246 [file in pdf format - 544 KB]; Pls. 1-24 [file in pdf format - 3.7 MB]; tav. fuori testo 1-4 [file in pdf format - 200 KB]
CERAMICA BIZANTINA E OMAYYADE DI 'UYUN MUSA
Pottery and other finds from the 'Uyun Musa excavations (see the preceding contribution by M. Piccirillo) are presented and discussed here. The Early Bronze, Byzantine and Arab Period is represented. While Byzantine pottery from this site is already known, Early Bronze and Early Arab Pottery is new. Some complete or nearly complete vessels are of special interest. Since no iconoclastic damage appears in the mosaic pavement of the church, we conclude, from a chronological point of view, that the last pottery in use, like that picked up directly from the pavement, must predate the spreading of Iconoclasm in Jordan in the eighth century A.D.
Pgs. 247-261 [file in pdf format - 352 KB]
LE ANTICHITA' DI RAFAT E DINTORNI
This study deals with the antiquities of Rafat (5 km northwest of Bet Shemesh - Israel grid 145 131), where the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem owns an estate and an orphanage. In the first part a general survey is made of the ruins, tombs, cisterns, columbaria, quarries and oil-presses which can be seen today, or were noticed in the past, that are inside the boundaries of the Latin property or in its surroundings: Khirbet Surik, Khirbet Jammuz, Rafat, Khirbet Hasan, Khirbet Musheirifa, Deir et-Tahuna, Deir es-Saghir and Sar'a. In the second part the author describes the objects preserved in the small museum and in the forecourt of the new church. They include architectural elements from an ecclesiastical building, ossuaries, lamps and other vessels of glass, pottery and metals. The objects were all found in this site on different occasions and chronologically span the Bronze, Iron, Hellenistic, Herodian, Roman, Byzantine and Arab periods.
Pgs. 263-286 [file in pdf format - 576 KB]; Pls. 25-34 [file in pdf format - 1.4 MB]
A CHURCH AND WATER RESERVOIR BUILT BY EMPRESS EUDOCIA
The site of Qasr 'Ali lies atop a small hill about 6 km east of Jerusalem; it is identified with the church and water reservoir built by Empress Eudocia in 459, a year before her death. According to the hagiographer Cyril of Scythopolis, the church was dedicated to St. Peter. Cyril mentions only the church and the reservoir; further archaeological research revealed the existence of living quarters and a tower beside the church. It is assumed that the church and water reservoir were built at the same time as the tower and living quarters, together creating a small monastic complex. The monks who lived in the monastery provided services to the thousands of pilgrims who traveled from Jerusalem to the baptismal sites on the Jordan River and back to the Holy City during the Byzantine period. This kind of monastery which aimed to serve the needs of pilgrims manifests the combination of Christian piety and practical generosity that characterized Eudocia's activities in the Holy Land.
Pgs. 287-294 [file in pdf format - 512 KB]; Pls. 35-36 [file in pdf format - 360 KB]
THE SABAITE LAURA OF JEREMIAS IN THE JUDEAN DESERT
The Laura of Jeremias, located in Wadi ez-Zaraniq in the Judean desert, was founded by St. Sabas in 531 CE, and was regulated by his monastic rule. It comprises a nucleus, where the church and the other communal buildings were located, and two groups of cells, 12 in number altogether, interconnected by a path. The general layout of the Laura, as well as the plan and construction of each cell or complex are described in the article. The estimated population was 15 monks.
Pgs. 295-311 [file in pdf format - 556 KB]; Pls. 37-40 [file in pdf format - 1.1 MB]
AN EIGHTH CENTURY MONASTERY NEAR JERUSALEM
(R. Arav - L. Di Segni - A. Kloner)
A monastic establishment, probably a monastery-farm, was discovered in the suburb of Ramot, Jerusalem. The site consists of an agricultural enclosure adjoining a building in a very bad state of preservation. Among the finds was a jar of the Early Arab period. One of the rooms was paved in mosaic with a Greek inscription mentioning a Patriarch, Theodorus, a chorepiscopus and a priest and head of a monastic community. The inscription is dated 6254 Anno Mundi, i.e. AD 762.
Pgs. 313-320 [file in pdf format - 648 KB]; Pls. 41-44 [file in pdf format - 632 KB]
THE BI-APSIDAL CHURCHES IN PALESTINE, JORDAN, SYRIA, LEBANON, AND CYPRUS
In a previous systematic study of Byzantine churches in the Levant, we discovered three important subjects for the Palaeo-Christian Period in Palestine: 1) Mono-apsidal churches with two lateral pastophoria were modified into tri-apsidal basilicas; 2) Tri-apsidal churches are more numerous here in absolute and in relative numbers than in any other province; 3) The liturgical centre for the Cult of the Saints and Martyrs originated in Palestine. After discovering these important phenomena, we decided to concentrate our study in another aspect of this manifestation: to discover, if some churches in the Levant indicated hybrid constructions or transformations of a single apse with a reliquiarium/sarcophagus in either one of the pastophoria. We discovered that certain churches in the Byzantine East manifested this unusual ecclesiastical construction. However, at our current stage of research, we could not attribute these phenomena to one specific Christian sect or Church dogma.
Pgs. 321-334 [file in pdf format - 416 KB]; Pls. 45-48 [file in pdf format - 432 KB]
BAUTISTERIOS Y MARTYRIA RURALES EN EL NORTE DE SIRIA (SIGLOS V-VI)
The first rural baptisteries appeared in the North of Syria during the first decades of the 5th century, and coincide with the conversion to Christianity of the countryside. Their structure and dimension confirm the evolution of the baptismal rite which took place during this age: passing from adult baptism to the baptism of the very young. At about this same period the first "martyria", that is, religious buildings located close to the churches or within monastic enclosures, were erected. The most original part of this study deals with the "martyria-baptisteries", buildings which serve a double function as commemorative chapels and places for the administration of baptism.
Pgs. 335-348 [file in pdf format - 408 KB]; Pls. 49-54 [file in pdf format - 704 KB]
DATING SYNAGOGUES IN GALILEE: THE EVIDENCE FROM MEROTH AND CAPERNAUM
Ilan and Damati have recently discovered a IV/V century 'Galilean' type synagogue at Meroth. A later synagogue at the same site dates to the seventh century. These findings lend support to the late dating of the famous synagogue at Capernaum. Yet Tsafrir, arguing for an early chronology of the synagogue at Capernaum, proposes the incredulous: the crude VII century pedestals from Meroth date the classical pedestals at Capernaum some four hundred years earlier. The IV century pedestals at Meroth, found as spolia, and analogous to those at Capernaum simply do not figure in Tsafrir's discussion. Foerster, also in favour of an early chronology for the synagogue at Capernaum, calculates some cardinal dimensions of the plan of that building according to a 'Syrian' foot. However, the results of a computation based on a Byzantine foot are tenfold more accurate. Evidently one can not be too critical in considering Tsafrir's and Foerster' argumentation.
Pgs. 349-355 [file in pdf format - 628 KB]; Pls. 55-58 [file in pdf format - 276 KB]
NUOVI TIPI DI ISCRIZIONI SU LUCERNE BIZANTINE
New Greek inscriptions on the Byzantine lamps from Palestine are here discussed, as a continuation of the monographic study on the same subject which appeared in 1989 (Loffreda S., Lucerne bizantine in Terra Santa con iscrizioni in greco, Jerusalem; see also "The Greek Inscriptions on the Byzantine Lamps from the Holy Land", in: Christian Archaeology in the Holy Land. New Discoveries, Essays in Honour of Virgilio C. Corbo, Jerusalem 1990, 475-500). Of special importance is the inscription of lamp n. 1001 for its reference to Ps 118,105 and (probably) to John 1,9.
Pgs. 357-363 [file in pdf format - 392 KB]; Pls. 59-60 [file in pdf format - 136 KB]
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FOUR MAGICAL AND CHRISTIAN AMULETS
The description of four amulets, 3rd to 6th century A. D., from the Israel Museum Collection concentrates on the special qualities of these amulets which are either unique or a variant of a known type. The first three objects have been categorized by their magical character. They include: 1. Syncretistic Amulet of Abrasax. 2. Christian Gnostic Amulet representing the resurrection of Lazarus. 3. Amulet of Solomon the horseman. The fourth is a Christian Amulet which depicts a ship with the word ICHTHYS under it.
Pgs. 365-374 [file in pdf format - 420 KB]; Pls. 61-62 [file in pdf format - 168 KB]
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VIAGGI ED ESPLORAZIONI NELLA REGIONE DELLO WADI EL-YABIS DALLA TARDA ANTICHITè AL XIX SECOLO
Since 1987 a joint project of the University of Rome and of Arizona (Tucson) has been underway involving a series of archaeological soundings and excavations in the Wadi el-Yabis under the direction of Jonathan Mabry and this writer. In addition to the historical-archaeological research on the human habitations during various epochs in this northern part of the Jordan valley, the aim of the project is that of reconstructing, with the help of preceding explorations and travel accounts, both the natural and human landscape of Wadi el-Yabis. Travels and explorations in the Levant especially in the 19th century constitute an important chapter in the archaeological knowledge of this region since they represent the first systematic collection of data that contained place names, or descriptions of places and events.
Pgs. 375-395 [file in pdf format - 440 KB]
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