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Liber Annuus XLIV (1994)

747 pp.; 466 pls. U.S. $ 70.00

GENERAL INDEX



Prime pagine [file in pdf format - 24 KB]


DILUVIO, SINTASSI E METODO
(A. Niccacci)

The syntax of the Flood Narrative in Gen 6:9-8:22 is investigated according to the author's text-linguistic method with the aim of understanding the function of each sentence and the overall structure. This results in a fresh evaluation of the multiple repetitions in the text that are frequently interpreted as a major indication of the need for source criticism. Syntax shows that repetitions are the product of different techniques. One consists in providing general information with wayyiqtol first and then specifying details with (waw-) x-qatal. In other cases previously given information is resumed in order to add something new. As a result a tense and epic style prevails all over the text. There is a need for critical research to refine its criteria. The paper also suggests that modern exegesis has something to learn from traditional Jewish interpretation. The article concludes with a call for an integrated method for the interpretation of the Biblical texts in which modern approaches, both synchronic and diachronic, have a place alongside traditional interpretation.
Pgs. 9-46 [file in pdf format - 132 KB]

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L'ATTESA DEL PROFETA FEDELE AL TEMPO DEI MACCABEI
(A. Sisti)
In the time of the Maccabees, who revolted against the uncontrolled persecution by Antiochus Epiphanes IV, I Macc refers twice to decisions adopted in a provisional manner, awaiting a faithful prophet who would indicate with certitude what ought to be done (4,46; 14,41). From these texts, the present study attempts to show the origin of this hope which was founded on ancient promises; an ardent desire that we find gathered in numerous texts which lament the total end of prophecy; the faithful vigil which appears in many other biblical and non-biblical texts of the Hellenistic period up to the time of the New Testament; and finally the multiple testimonies gathered by Josephus Flavius regarding true and false prophets who swarmed Palestine during the same historical period. From all these it may be deduced that the awaited prophet, who is mentioned many times in the Gospels (cf Jn 1,21.25; 7,40.52; Mt 11,30; Lk 7,20), has some antecedents that are indispensible to know, so as to understand and evaluate better the munus propheticum invested in Jesus Christ (cf Lk 4,16-22).
Pgs. 47-82 [file in pdf format - 112 KB]


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IL DITO DI DIO (LC 11,20) NELL'ESEGESI MODERNA E PATRISTICA
(D. Chrupcala)
The difficulty surrounding the interpretation of en daktulo theou in Lk 11:20 is well noted. The parallel in Mt 12:28 is expressed in a different way: ejn pneuvmati qeou'. Which of these two is to be considered the primitive version and what is the exact meaning of Luke's uncommon idiomatic expression? In searching for an answer to these questions, modern exegesis is not able to reach a definite and univocal conclusion. Some of the scholars maintain that Matthew's version is the original, others think that the version of Luke is the original. It seems, however, that the impossibility of determining this point does not exclude that it could give to the Lucan expression a meaning not different from that expressed in Mt 12:28: the "finger of God" is the Holy Spirit. This idea that appears in modern exegesis is well confirmed in the Patristic writings. Apart from the general sense of the power of God, the early Church Fathers always interpreted the "finger of God" with reference to the Spirit. The passage of Lk 11:20 was read and understood not only in the light of the parallel in Mt 12:28 but also in the OT passages which refer to "the finger" (Ex 8:15; 31:18; Deut 9:10; Ps 8:4). The Lucan text was also used by the early Church Fathers as a valid argument to confirm the nature of the Third Person of the Trinity: thus, the "finger" becomes the symbol of the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The Patristic exegesis of the "finger of God" in a pneumatological sense does not seem contrary but rather confirms what Luke himself refers to as the relationship between Jesus and the Spirit. The act of exorcising is the fruit of the activity of the Spirit (Lk 11:20); indeed, it is precisely the full possession of the Spirit (cf. Lk 3:22; 4:1.14.18) which permits Jesus to exorcise the devils, to cure the sick and proclaim the message of the Kingdom of God.
Pgs. 83-110 [file in pdf format - 108 KB]


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PER UN COMMENTO A EBREI
(N. Casalini)
Following the first essay which appeared in LA 41 (1991) 125-158, the author continues his critical review of the commentary of Erich GrÉsser on Hebrews, whose second volume An die HebrÉer (Hb 7,1-10,18), EKK XII/2, was published in 1993. He discusses many topics and interpretations difficult to summarize in few lines. In particular he rejects with vigour and decisiveness the reading of Hb 8,13 and Hb 10,9 as the sentence of death of the first covenant, showing that that is without justification. On three main problems (1) the death of Christ as sacrifice, (2) the eucharist, (3) the common priesthood of the believers, he does not share at all Erich GrÉsser's point of view, not because of confessional grounds but because of philological reasons: the commentator does not respect the symbolic meaning of the cultic language used by the author of Hebrews, thus missing the real theological message of the letter.
Pgs. 111-214 [file in pdf format - 336 KB]


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LE DIATESI DEL VERBO NEL GRECO BIBLICO
(L. Cignelli - G. C. Bottini)
The present essay is the second part of a study dedicated to the use of the verb in the biblical Greek. As the previous essay was dedicated to the use of the active and passive voice in the Septuagint and the New Testament (cf. LA 43, 1993, 115-139), this one studies the middle voice in the same texts. Different values and meanings of the middle voice in the texts of Septuagint and New Testament are systematically classified by the authors. Following, and eventually integrating current works on Greek Grammar and Syntax, the authors distinguish in the middle voice: the Direct Reflexive Middle, the Indirect Reflexive Middle, the Direct Dynamic Middle, the Indirect Dynamic Middle, the Bivalent Dynamic Middle, the Causative Middle, the Reciprocal Middle. Each phenomenon or use is illustrated by numerous examples found in the Septuagint and the New Testament and sometimes in other related texts.
Pgs. 215-252 [file in pdf format - 156 KB]


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LE TARGUM DE RUTH. MS URBINATI 1. TRADUCTION ET COMMENTAIRE
(F. Manns)
Following the articles on Targum of the Canticle (LA 41,1991, 223-302), on Targum Qohelet (LA 42, 1992, 145-198) and on Targum Lamentations (LA 43, 1993, 141-180), this study investigates the Targum of Ruth. As in the previous studies, the author gives a French translation of the Urbinati I manuscript. He then analyses the vocabulary and general characteristics of the Aramaic version. Finally he studies the death penalty by crucifixion mentioned in this Targum as well as in other Targumic and Qumranic texts. This important topic provides an element helping to define the Sitz im Leben of the author of the Targum.
Pgs. 253-290 [file in pdf format - 136 KB]


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ESEGESI PROSOPOGRAFICA DI S. BASILIO MAGNO
(M. C. Paczkowski)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of "person exegesis" in St. Basil's works, with a view of its implications in different fields. The theological context of Patristic usage of this particular exegetical method shows the similarity between Basil and various "schools of exegesis." The Trinitarian and Christological formulas were developed not on the basis of philosophical concepts, but the exegetical method of the school of "person exegesis." Basil does not alter its purpose, but developes his doctrine through philological and theological analysis of the use of prosôpon and its "distinctions" or "changes" he discovered in biblical texts. He considers also identity and traits of prosôpa-subjects, its individuality and recourses to the expression ek prosopou. Some passages suggest comparisons with terminology connected with theatrical arts. The bishop of Caesarea emphasises the equality and unity of the prosôpa. He applies the "person exegesis" to Trinitarian relations, epinoiai of the Divine Persons and the role of the Logos in creation. "Distinction of persons" is also a criterion for identifying ecclesiological threads in the reading of biblical texts. In the context of "person exegesis", Basil adds the ascetic indications concerning fasting.
Pgs. 291-330 [file in pdf format - 140 KB]


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SENSO LESSICALE E SENSO CONTESTUALE. OSSERVAZIONI DI ESEGETI EBREI MEDIEVALI A ES 1-20
(M. Pazzini)
The article lists a series of words and expressions found in the first twenty chapters of the book of Exodus and considers them in medieval Jewish exegesis. It treats words which, in the context examined, may be interpretated variously. The opinions of medieval exegetes are cited regarding the words in question, highlighting those of note. The article demonstrates to lexicographists and translators of the Bible, that the contribution of medieval Jewish commentators to the interpretation of texts, is worthy of consideration.
Pgs. 331-350 [file in pdf format - 96 KB]


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MARI AND EBLA: OF TIME AND RULERS
(L. Viganó)
The present work has a primary purpose of organizing the tablets found in the main archive of Tell Mardikh in a chronological sequence, but is restricted to the records involving the cities of Mari and Ebla. To achieve this goal, the author first examined the reports regarding the rulers (lugal) of the city along the Euphrates; and his investigation confirmed that, after Iblu-Il, NI-zi was in charge in Mari for three years at the time of Ar-Ennum supremacy in Ebla. Then Enna-Dagan took over his position and held it until the first part of Ebrium's dominance - TM 75.G.1368 on one side, and TM 1271, 1293, 1354 and 1564 on the other side tell us when the transition took place. After him, HI-da-ar became ruler of Mari. In the second part, he studied the few tablets quoting the en, "king" of Mari and he came to two main conclusions: [1] under the Ar-Ennum leadership at Ebla and the early Enna-dDagan rulership at Mari, an en, "king" did reign in the city along the Euphrates; so the office held by NI-zi and Enna-dDagan should be viewed from a different angle; [2] two Mari en, "kings" only are mentioned in the Ebla records: Iblu-II and I-KU(-i)-shar, exactly as it was known from the texts found at Mari.
Pgs. 351-373 [file in pdf format - 128 KB]


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IL LAGO DI TIBERIADE E LE SUE CITTè NELLA LETTERATURA GRECO-ROMANA
(M. Adinolfi)
Few Greek-Roman authors spoke of the Lake of Tiberias and of the cities which are found there. Only the geographer Pausania had a direct knowledge of them. Thus one explains why all the other ancient authors furnish generic, insufficient and second or third hand information regarding these places.
Pgs. 375-380 [file in pdf format - 76 KB]


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LA CHIESA DEL PROFETA ELIA A MADABA. NUOVE SCOPERTE
(M. Piccirillo)
Within the scope of establishing the Archeological Park of Madaba in May 1992, ACOR of Amman reopened the excavations of the upper church of the Prophet Elijah, directed by C. Lenzen. The excavations were completed in the summer of 1994 by the archeologists of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. The mosaic, dated to 607/8 and which contains two well-known inscriptions rich in theological and historical information, is well preserved from the mid-west of the central nave up to an inscribed medallion and in the southern nave and in parts of the chapel beside the church towards the south-west corner. The church is a duplicate of the church of the Madaba Map. Figurative motifs set into a network of flowers and surrounded by a lively border were defaced by iconoclasts. Near the door, a third inscription of two lines citing Ps 64,5-6 (LXX) is found.
Pgs. 381-404 [file in pdf format - 496 KB]


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SCAVO DEL CORTILE BAJALI A MADABA
(A. Acconci - E. Gabrieli)
The so-called "courtyard of Bajali," north-east of the Church of the Virgin was discovered when work to realise the Archeological Park of Madaba and the creation of the Madaba Mosaic School was undertaken along the paved Roman road. Restoration was undertaken in a area of habitation on the northern limits of the Roman-Byzantine-Omayyad city. Occupation on the site extends from the Roman period through to the Byzantine, post-Byzantine and late Ottoman epochs.
Pgs. 405-520 [file in pdf format - 1.5 MB]


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LE DUE ISCRIZIONI DELLA CAPPELLA DELLA THEOTOKOS NEL WADI 'AYN AL-KANISAH SUL MONTE NEBO
(M. Piccirillo)

The little monastery was identified by Franciscan archeologists in 1933. It lies east of the spring 'Ayn al-Kanisah in the valley south of Mt Siyagha. The 1994 dig brought to light the central chapel and the service area on the chapel's northern side, some rooms in the north, a courtyard on the west and an hypogeum tomb under the chapel with its entrance south of the faÙade door. Two inscriptions were found on the mosaic pavement of the chapel, decorated with trailing branches of vine which belong to a work of the VI century. It was reset at the time of Bishop Job of Madaba. Monastic titles such as Abbot, Archimandrite, Hegoumenos of all the Desert, Stylite and Recluse all recur in these two inscriptions. The date of the restoration of the buildings "in the year 6270, indiction 15", calculated according to the Byzantine era of creation, corresponds to the period between March 25 and August 31, 762 AD. The Byzantine era of creation, which dated the Nativity to the year of the world 5508, is used also in the mosaic pavement of the Church of the Virgin in Madaba. At about the same time the Church of Jerusalem used the Alexandrine era, which dated the Nativity to A.M. 5492. The date becomes an important terminus post quem for the dating of the pottery typologies found on the site.
Pgs. 521-538 [file in pdf format - 296 KB]


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NOTE SUR UNE MOSAIQUE À SCENE BACHIQUE DANS UN PALAIS D'ÉPOQUE BYZANTINE À JÉRASH
(I. Z'ubi - P.-L. Gatier - M. Piccirillo - J. Seigne)
In the Spring of 1993, while construction of a palace was underway in the eastern sector of Jerash, a wealthy residence of the Byzantine period with mosaic rooms was uncovered. The principle room was decorated with a floor-piece bordered by acanthus scrolls with scenes of hunting and masks with wreathes at the corners. The floor-piece was divided into two panels: a Bacchic procession in the upper (Pan, Dionysus, Bacchus, Satyr); and a scene with the names of Aphrodite (Kypris), a peasant (Agroikis) and the Philantheoi (Flower lovers?).
Pgs. 539-546 [file in pdf format - 148 KB]


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A NEW UMAYYAD CHURCH AT KHILDA / AMMAN
(M. Najjar - F. Sa'id)
While constructing a new house on the southern slopes of Khirbet 'Othman in the western quarter of Khildeh in Amman, a church was identified and excavated by the Department of Antiquities. It has a double nave with narthex at the entrance, paralleling the form found in the lower church at Quwaysmah. This church, dedicated to the martyr St. Varus, was constructed in the time of Bishop George in 687 AD. From the excavations was discovered a lower edifice with pre-existing mosaics of the Byzantine epoch. The area of the church was reoccupied in the Mamaluk period. Among the motifs of the upper part of the mosaic that were disfigured by iconoclasts is a figure representing the earth in the form of a woman standing, and holding flowers.
Pgs. 547-560 [file in pdf format - 208 KB]


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WHAT WAS THE SOURCE OF HERODION'S WATER
(D. Amit)
Modern researchers have held that the aqueduct leading to Herodion originated at a spring in the village of Urtas, to the east of Solomon's Pools and south of Bethlehem. Vestiges of an aqueduct exist between the village and the large pool at the foot of Herodion. This theory may be challenged on two grounds: (1) Literary-historic: Josephus writes in The Jewish War and in Jewish Antiquities that the Herodion aqueduct carried large quantities of water over a long distance, and was built at great expense. (2) Topographic-engineering: Measurements indicate that the level of aqueduct is higher than the source of the Urtas spring. Josephus' descriptions lead to the conclusion that the Herodion aqueduct was part of the larger system that brought water to Jerusalem, and a field survey of the remains between Solomon's Pools and Urtas suggests that this was the upper portion of that aqueduct. The vestiges adjacent to Urtas are possibly part of a lower conduit which in the early Roman period provided water to a magnificent bath-house whose remains were discovered in the Arab village. In the Byzantine period it may have been extended eastward to a flour mill, and perhaps to the Charitun monastery built during that period.
Pgs. 561-578 [file in pdf format - 116 KB]


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A NEW TOPONYM IN SOUTHERN SAMARIA
(L. Di Segni)
An inscription engraved on a stone slab was copied by Arab peasants in the area of Kafr ed-Dik in southern Samaria. It is a dedication to the Olympian gods (the deified emperors?) for the salvation of Hadrian, by a village whose name can be tentatively restored as Kaparanaia, possibly today's Kafr 'Ain, near Kafr ed-Dik to the SE.
Pgs. 579-584 [file in pdf format - 32 KB]


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UNO STAMPO PER EULOGIA TROVATO A GERUSALEMME
(M. Piccirillo)
In the Spring of 1992, a dealer in antiquities in the Holy City presented to the Museum of the Studium Biblicum a stone eulogiac stamp found in the village of Siloam in Jerusalem. It is now displayed beside an imageless stamp of the same material and form found in 1903 on Mt Zion and conserved in the Museum of the SBF. From the stamp, one may make out two blessings with the images of the Sacrifice of Isaac (Blessing of Abraham) and of Daniel in the Lions' Den (Blessing of Daniel).
Pgs. 585-590 [file in pdf format - 108 KB]


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A BYZANTINE BREAD STAMP FROM TIBERIAS
(N. Feig)
A bread stamp was discovered during salvage excavations in Tiberias, 1980, in a 6th-7th century Arab building. The design displayed a Greek cross with three arms decorated with lines while a fourth was with circles and triangles. The central piece resembles a loaf of bread with ray-like lines extending from it. From a similar-looking fragment found in Kefar Baram and studies by liturgists, this bread stamp may be dated to Byzantine times.
Pgs. 591-594 [file in pdf format - 72 KB]


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DIECI LUCERNE CON ISCRIZIONI
(S. Loffreda)
The inventory and study of Palestinian oil-lamps bearing Greek inscriptions is far from complete, even after repeated research. What matters at this moment is not the numerical increase of such oil-lamps, but the singling out of typologically new inscriptions, in order to update the basic study offered by the writer in 1989 (Lucerne bizantine in Terra Santa con iscrizioni in greco, Jerusalem). The new material, in some cases, will modify certain general conclusions reached bona fide in the past, and raise additional interpretative problems. Although the main interest is centered on the Byzantine oil-lamps, one exception is made in the present issue by publishing also a lychnarion of the Roman period (SF 7746), since inscriptions of any kind are extremely rare or lacking altogether in that kind of lamps.
Pgs. 595-607 [file in pdf format - 256 KB]


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