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Liber Annuus XLV (1995)

672 pp.; 84 pls. U.S. $ 70.00


GENERAL INDEX


Prime pagine [file in pdf format - 24 KB]

IL CONCETTO DI ALLEANZA NELLA STORIA PRIMITIVA (Gen 2,4-11,9) - E. Testa
The author, after having treated the giuridical and religious principles of profane and religious pacts in general, concentrates on the covenants with Adam and with Noah, contained in the primitive history of Gen 2,4-9,17. First, the vassalage pacts of the Hittites are studied, which, according to G. von Rad, are found in the Bible (in the book of Deuteronomy), and according to L. Alonso Schökel in the covenant with Adam. Then the author studies the problematic text of Hos 6,7 and Sir 17,1-14 in order to identify in Gen 2-3 the five themes of the covenant in Paradise: historical prologue, stipulation, fidelity or infidelity, blessing and curse. Finally, the figure of Noah is presented, the new Adam, and his non-cultic, but unilateral, universal and cosmic covenant of Gen 9,8-17.
Pgs. 9-43 [file in pdf format - 424 KB]

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C'E' UNA REDAZIONE 'NOMISTICA'
NELL'OPERA DEUTERONOMISTICA?
(E. Cortese)
There are two schools which differ in their interpretation of the work of the Deuteronomistic work. One considers it to be from the period of the Exile, in three redactions (Dtr H, P, N), and the other considers it to be pre-exilic with a later exilic redaction. The author, who opts for the second hypothesis, shows that after the pre-exilic composition (corresponding to Dtr H, to which Dtr P, prophetic, is incorporated), there is only one exilic redaction. The two redactions (with possible later additions) are examined in the key passages (Deut 4 and 28,69-30, 30,20; Josh 23; Judg 2,11-3,6; 1Sam 12; 2Kings 17,7-20 and, in the appendix, the whole complex of Deut 12-26). Thus the author differs from O'Brien, who, although he follows the hypothesis of a pre-exilic redaction, nevertheless sees two exilic redactions, the second of which corresponds to the nomistic Dtr N.
Pgs. 45-68 [file in pdf format - 156 KB]


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SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF RUTH
(A. Niccacci)
A syntactic analysis of the book of Ruth is given according to the verbal system previously described by the author. The analysis is accompanied by a full translation showing a way of rendering the functions of the Hebrew verb into English. The whole book of Ruth, both the narrative and the direct speech sections, are well understandable in the framework of that description. In dialogue with D.A. Dawson, Text-Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew, the author shows that an approach based on text types bypasses syntactic analysis and is not helpful in the treatment of full texts.
Pgs. 69-106 [file in pdf format - 284 KB]


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LA THEOLOGIE DE LA NOUVELLE NAISSANCE
DANS LA PREMIèRE LETTRE DE PIERRE
(F. Manns)
The theology of regeneration in the First Letter of Peter can be studied from different points of view and with different methods. Remaining on the synchronic level the author points out the existence of two different theologies of the regeneration: first the letter speaks of regeneration through the resurrection of Jesus and then regeneration is presented as operated by the Word of God. Is there a contradiction? The author tries to provide an answer to this question.
Pgs. 107-141 [file in pdf format - 144 KB]


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CONCORDANZA DEL PRONOME AUTOS NEL GRECO BIBLICO
(L. Cignelli - G. C. Bottini)
In most textbooks of grammar and syntax of Biblical Greek, the pronoun autos is not treated in a specific manner. Its multiple significance and its uses are generally presented in different parts of the syntax. The present study intends instead to offer an overview, as complete as possible, of the meanings and of the concordance of this pronoun in Biblical Greek. Three usages are classified and studied: (1) autos standing by itself, (2) autos in the predicate position, (3) ho autos used as an adjective pronoun and as a substantival pronoun. With regard to the concordance, a distinction is made between that of autos in the predicate position and as an adjective pronoun, and that of autos as a pronoun. For every phenomenon, examples taken from the Septuagint and from the New Testament are systematically cited. The study also illustrates the vast usage of autos in the two Testaments and its considerable importance for biblical exegesis.
Pgs. 143-164 [file in pdf format - 2.8 MB]


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GERUSALEMME NEGLI SCRITTORI CRISTIANI DEL II-III SECOLO
(M. C. Paczkowski)
The present article is a study concerning the spiritual dimension of Jerusalem in the reflection of early Christian writers. This notion becomes an important issue in polemical discussions with the Jews, in the theology of the early Church, and in the exegesis of the Fathers in the second and third centuries. Philo of Alexandria offers a basis for the notion of a spiritual Jerusalem. This idea was furthered by the destruction of the Holy City and the dispersion of the Jews, which were used as arguments in the polemic against Judaism. The polemic with the Gnostics, on the other hand, refrained speculation on the spiritual Jerusalem, whereas the controversy concerning millenarism stimulated its development. Origen and the Alexandrian exegetes were the principal exponents of the use of allegory to indicate the reality of Jerusalem. Even Origen's adversaries, such as Methodius, remain faithful to this traditional interpretation of the spiritual image of the Holy City, which may be interpreted as "vision of peace," "heavenly City," the "Church" and the "human soul."
Pgs. 165-202 [file in pdf format - 380 KB]


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THE USE OF THE SUMERIAN WORD NíG-BA, <<GIFT>>,
IN THE EBLA ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS
(L. Viganò)
The Sumerian Word níg-ba, "gift", occurs regularly in the Ebla administrative reports and is primarily used to indicate gifts offered to the gods. It can also indicate gifts for a wedding, where they are referred to the bride, almost consistently mentioned by name, and are presented to her and her family. Níg-ba occurs also with place names and in association with the verb åu mu-takx, "to deliver". In this case, it indicates a "gift" that has been presented to the Ebla administration.
Pgs. 203-215 [file in pdf format - 160 KB]


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LA SETTIMA STAZIONE DELLA VIA CRUCIS
E LE MURA DI GERUSALEMME
(E. Alliata - P. Kaswalder)
Recent probing excavations conducted in winter of 1994-95 at the Seventh Station of the Via Crucis, in the historic center of Jerusalem at the intersection between Sug Khan az-Zayt and `Aqabat al-Qanqa Rd., have uncovered some very ancient remains, probably going back to the time of Aelia Capitolina (135 A.D.). These include a column, which could already be seen in the chapel of the Seventh Station, and the posts of a door hidden under the walls of an adjacent store. These discoveries offer us the opportunity to reconstruct the history of the Seventh Station, and to investigate on what elements the tradition of the second fall of Jesus is based, which since the thirteenth century has been associated with the memory of one of the gates (the Old or Judicial Gate) that were opened into the walls of ancient Jerusalem.
Pgs. 217-246 [file in pdf format - 524 KB]


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THE MONASTERY OF ST. THEOCTISTUS (DEIR MUQALLIK)
(H. Goldfus - B. Arubas - E. Alliata)
The article is the outcome of a series of visits to the site of the Monastery of Theoctistus in the Judean desert from 1991 to 1995. The report presents accurate up-to-date photos, plans, relevant cross-sections and elevations of the cave-church complex, and of the burial chamber. It also suggests an architectural reconstruction of the six-story building which stood in front of the cave. In addition, it contains some corrections to previous observations and recording, and provides new archaeological data. Two principal phases of construction in the cave-church complex are discerned. These phases could be correlated, to a limited extent, with events mentioned in the historical sources. The first phase, which is commonly regarded as the golden age of this and other Judean desert monasteries, is dated to the early Byzantine period, i.e. to the 5th-7th centuries. The second phase, undoubtedly inferior to the first one in many respects, can be assigned, in vague terms, to the early - mid Muslim period, i.e. 7th-12th centuries. The relevant number of Greek inscriptions incised and painted on different layers of plaster inside the cave-church complex, and especially in the proximity of the burial chamber, suggest that the place was regarded as a holy site, but evidence for the tomb of the founder (St. Teoctistus) is still missing, in the absence of archaeological excavations in the cave itself and in the whole monastery.
Pgs. 247-292 [file in pdf format - 1 MB]


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LE ANTICHITA' CRISTIANE DEL VILLAGGIO DI MEKAWER
(M. Piccirillo)
The name of the village of Mekawer has preserved the ancient place-name of the Hasmonean - Herodian fortress of Machaerous in Perea between wadi Heidan and wadi Zerqa Ma`in. With the Roman - Byzantine cemetery to the east, between the houses of the village reconstructed by Banu Hamideh, there have been identified two churches and a chapel. The strip of mosaics in the west church is dated to 603. In the inscription of the central nave along the step of the presbytery of the central church, the name has been preserved of the bishop Malechios, a new name to be added to the Episcopal list of Madaba. Possibly he is to be put between Elijah (536) and bishop John (562).
Pgs. 293-318 [file in pdf format - 600 KB]


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CHRISTIANITY AT HUMAYMA, JORDAN
(R. Schick)
Excavations since 1991 at the site of Humayma, in southern Jordan, have revealed extensive evidence of Christians there during the Byzantine period. Four churches have been excavated. The C101 lower church is a well-preserved triple-apsed basilica with burials below the flagstone pavement. The church went out of use around the mid-seventh century. The B100 and F102 basilicas were completely built over by houses from the eighth century, while the C119 upper church has been only partially investigated.
Pgs. 319-342 [file in pdf format - 424 KB]


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UN PUERTO FLUVIAL ROMANO EN EL ORONTES
(I. Peña)
This article is about an archaeological find in May 1994 of a river port of the Roman period in Derkush, northern Syria. The main wharf is formed by a double line of rocks 35 meters long. There is a well preserved block of stone with a hole in the middle, which very probably was used to hold the boats while they were moored in the dock. Around the wharf there is a complex of sacred caves at various levels, established no doubt to satisfy the religious needs of the sailors. This work seems to have orientated the construction in the River Orontes. It was begun by the Emperor Trajan and continued by the Antonines. The River Orontes played an important role in the transportation of merchandise and construction materials between the great lands of Syria and Antioch.
Pgs. 343-350 [file in pdf format - 72 KB]


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THE DESIGN OF THE ANCIENT SYNAGOGUES IN JUDAEA:
HORVAT MA`ON AND HORVAT ANIM
(D. Chen - D. Milson)
The naoi of the synagogues at Horvat Ma`on and Horvat `Anim are of the same length, 42 Byzantine feet of 0.3089 m. Plans of both synagogues were designed `ad quadratum.' At Horvat Ma`on the naos of the early synagogue reflects the ratio 3:2 (square and a half-hemiolion) - often found in the design of synagogues. The naos of the late synagogue at Horvat Ma'on fits a square. In the synagogue at Horvat `Anim the naos forms a double square. The same proportion was used in the design of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Pgs. 351-356 [file in pdf format - 112 KB]


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THE BINATED CHURCHES
AND THE HYBRID BINATED CHURCH COMPLEXES IN PALESTINE
(S. Margalit)
The previous studies, which were executed by the author throughout all of the provinces of the Holy Land, have discovered the following distinct theological and architectural phenomena: 1) The transformation of the mono-apsidal churches (with, or without the two lateral pastophoria) into tri-apsidal basilicas. 2) The original/hybrid constructions of the bi-apsidal churches (with, or without reliquaria/sarcophagi) in the apses. 3) The direct and conclusive interrelationships of these ecclesiastical edifices with the cult of the saints and martyrs. 4) Jerusalem and Palestine were the most important liturgical and theological centres for the cult of the saints and martyrs. 5) Jerusalem and Palestine were the nucleus for the construction of the tri-apsidal basilicas. 6) The tri-apsidal basilicas exemplified the theological dogma and the victory of the Orthodox versus the Monophysites and the other sects (Arians). These conclusions, have indicated that Constantine the Great, both theologically and architecturally, executed the decree of Nicaea (325 A.D.) by continuing the earliest Judaeo-Christian tradition and veneration. He constructed on the site of Golgotha the first binated church of the Byzantine Empire in the Martyrium of the church complex of the Anastasis. The first Constantinian binated church of the Anastasis church complex (the crypt of St. Helena) served as the main theological centre and ecclesiastical prototype for the Dyo-Physites throughout the provinces of the Holy Land and the whole Byzantine Empire.
Pgs. 357-400 [file in pdf format - 628 KB]


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MONKS AND MONASTERIES IN THE NEGEV DESERT
(P. Figueras)

This study is the first systematic collection of all available data about the presence of monks and monasteries in the Negev desert, in the south of Israel, during the Byzantine period. The excavation of entire monastic complexes as well as the discovery of local epigraphy and the Nessana papyri, allow us to draw a map of the monastic sites, including coenobia, urban communities around churches, laurae, and solitary cells of hermits. Thus archaeology, even if the interpretation of some of its results must be taken with caution, enlarges and enlightens what was already known from a few written sources. In only one case, however, does it seem possible to see a direct connection between archaeological and literary data. In general, the organized monastic communities of the Byzantine Negev must be held as an important though forgotten element of the religious, cultural and even agricultural development of the region.
Pgs. 401-450 [file in pdf format - 1.6 MB]


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NOTA SUL VALORE DI ALCUNE DIMENSIONI
DELL'ARCHITETTURA PALEOCRISTIANA
(E. Gautier di Confiengo)
During the pre-Constantinian period the letter T was used as the symbol of the Cross. As Greek numbers are represented by letters, the letter T indicates the number 300. In this way Ps. Barnabas explains in his Epistle that the number 318, that of the servants circumcised by Abraham (Gen. 14,14), represents the name of Jesus. The author argues that the number 300, which represents the length of the main Constantinian basilicas, measured in feet as in the Lateran and in the Vatican in Rome, or in cubits as in the Anastasis in Jerusalem, has a christological meaning. The measure is then used in the first cathedral in Milan, St. Tecla, and in the Apostolorum of St. Ambrose, also in Milan, in the cathedrals of Trier, Ephesos and Thessalonika and in other basilicas, and in Justininian's St. Sophia in Constantinople. In addition to the number 300, the christological figure is completed with the measurement of 18 feet in the apses of some of the above basilicas, like the Council Church in Ephesus, and St. Sophia in Constantinople. Another number inviting allegoric exegesis used as a measurement in sacred buildings is 153, the number of fishes that the Apostles miraculously fished in the Galilean Sea. It is the width of the St. Tecla and Apostolorum basilicas of Milan, and the length of the Basilica of Tiberias Acropolis. The use of these measurements in main sacred buildings symbolically conveys that the participants in the divine liturgy are the chosen nation of the Lord.
Pgs. 451-479 [file in pdf format - 568 KB]


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