Via Dolorosa - POB 19424, 91193 - JERUSALEM Tel. +972 2-6282936, +972-2-6280271, +972-2-6264516
Fax: +972-2-6264519; E-mail: edit@studiumbiblicum.org


Liber Annuus XLVII (1997)


GENERAL INDEX


Prime pagine [file in pdf format - 24 KB]

Per una teologia dello Spirito nel tardo profetismo - A. E. Cortese
The study proposes to be a reassessment of the dating of the late OT prophetic literature, focusing in particular on a sketch on the formation of the Book of the 12 Prophets. The central point describes the persecution of messianic prophetism by the postexilic theocracy and the message on the Spirit of God in the so called II-Zac, as deduced from Zac 9:9f; 11:4-17 and 13:7f; 13:1-6; 12:10-14; 14. The conclusion is that in the line of “democratization” announced by Joel 3:1-5 and Ez 37:1-14, when the messianic prophetism is suppressed, the Spirit will pass onto all the house of David and to the tribe of Levi (i.e. Kings and Priests), resulting in their conversion and a full recovery of the same messianism.
Pgs. 9-32 [file in pdf format - 300 KB]


Return to General index

Proverbi 23,12-25 - A. Niccacci
The author continues his analysis of the III Collection of the book of Proverbs by studying the second section of it, Prov 23:12-25 (for the first section, Prov. 22:17-23:11, see this same review vol. 29, 1979). Prov 23:12-25 is composed of four pericopes: (1) vv. 12-14, (2) 15-18, (3) 19-21, and (4) 22-25. Each pericope is fully analyzed from the point of view of philology, literary composition and exegesis. The four pericopes are interpreted on the basis of the lexical and thematic links present in them, and also with the help of parallel passages in Proverbs itself and in other books, especially Ben Sira. Pericope (1) is an invitation to correction: Correct the young that he may preserve life; (2) is an invitation to the wisdom of heart: Do not envy the sinners but rather those fearing the Lord because there is for you a future and a lasting hope; (3) is an invitation to listen and to become wise: Be not among the winebibbers and the gluttonous lest you become indigent; (4) is an invitation to listen to the parents: Buy truth... in order to make them happy. Thus Prov 23:12-25 shows two main characteristics. On the one side, it aims at the personal formation of the young pupil; on the other side, it is an instruction by the wisdom teacher based on the teaching of the parents.
Pgs. 33-56 [file in pdf format - 108 KB]


Return to General index

Is 52,13 - 53,12 nel racconto della passione di Lc 22-23 - G. C. Bottini
The book of P. Tremolada (“E fu annoverato tra iniqui”. Prospettive di lettura della Passione secondo Luca alla luce di Lc 22,37 [Is 53,12d], Roma 1997), which we present critically, is the result of a dissertation presented at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome under the direction of A. Vanhoye. The thesis is remarkable but not new: the quotation of Is 53,12d (LXX?) in Lk 22,37 is a “key” given by the narrator to the reader as an invitation to understand the passion narrative (Lk 22-23) in the light of the fourth song of the Servant of Jhwh (Is 52,13-53,12). We found that the A. was right in his tentative to discover the allusions to the Servant, but probably he carries it to “excess”: he sees its presence in almost all episodes of the story of the passion! Similarly, we could not find enough reasons to confirm his hypothesis that the narrator uses the figure of “irony” by showing that the anomoi, with whom Jesus was counted following the Scripture (Is 53,12d), is a direct reference to the persons who condemned him to death (i.e. high priests, the people, their leaders, Pilate, and Herod) and not to the two criminals (kakouvrgoi) who were crucified with him (Lk 23,39-43; cf. Lk 23,32). The “plot” does not show directly such an “ironical” change of situation, even if the judges of Jesus are going to be judged by God in the eschatological judgment (Lk 23,27-31).
Pgs. 57-78 [file in pdf format - 100 KB]


Return to General index

Il disegno di Dio e l’annuncio del regno alla luce di At 28,17-31 - L. D. Chrupcala
The article proposes to bring to light the link that exists between the Lucan theme of the plan of salvation and the “announcement of the kingdom of God”. In Acts 28:17-31 the Pauline proclamation about the kingdom of God and Jesus Christ is mentioned twice. It is addressed respectively to the Jews (28:23) and then to the pagans of Rome (28:31). It emerges that the message about the fulfillment of the ancient promises which were foretold in the Scriptures (this is the “announcement of the kingdom of God”) and about the Christ who is the protagonist of the plan of salvation (this is the “announcement of Jesus Christ”) carries a universal dimension in Luke’s theological thinking. The way this plan evolves shows the basis of the theological background of the whole Lucan work. Indeed, for Luke, the divine plan of salvation comes to reality in the person and ministry of Jesus Christ, and it continues in the successions of the events which happen after his glorification (the coming of the Holy Spirit and the Church mission to the pagans). When Paul preaches universally he gives witness to the fact that this divine plan from the very beginning was contemplated as a gift of salvation for both the Jews and the Gentiles. At the end of the Acts of the Apostles this promise of God begins to realize itself. Therefore, the current text displays that the universal proclamation of Jesus Christ is an integral part of the “announcement of the kingdom of God”
Pgs. 79-96 [file in pdf format - 76 KB]


Return to General index

Un inno prepaolino della catechesi della Chiesa Madre (Fil 2,6-11) - E. Testa
The hymn of Phil 2:6-11 is interpreted by the author according to the Jewish-Christian catechesis of the Mother Church from the Circumcision, and not according to the Fathers of the Church and to the exegetes of the Great Church from the Gentiles. The latter group based themselves on the “received text,” which reflected Pauline theology. In order to make his point, the author observes the hapaxlegomena present in the hymn and the terms not used at all by Paul or those used with a different sense. The meaning of the hymn is investigated in the perspective of several themes which are non-Pauline while at the same time being well developed in the archaic theology of Jewish-Christianity (remember essays by Daniélou, Bagatti and Testa). These themes are traced through a variety of texts ranging from the Vita Adae et Evae, the Testament of the Patriarchs, the Apocalypse of Moses, the Libri Graduum, to the Jewish literature - Pesiqta Rabbati, the Targumim, the Mishnah, both Talmuds and several rabbis, and to several Jewish-Christian apocryphal books - the Epistula Apostolorum, the Dialogue between John and Jesus, the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Gospel of Bartolomew, the Acts of Andrew, etc. This piece of literature has been received with great interest in the early Church, especially in the Orient, which we cannot ignore. It is to be noted what Paul himself acknowledges on several occasions that he transmits to his readers what he has received from others, e.g., the traditions on the Eucharist, the resurrection etc. He also repeats credal formulae (Glaubensformel), confessions (Bekenntnis), homologies, kerygma etc. Definitely he cannot be considered a second founder of Christianity
Pgs. 97-116 [file in pdf format - 80 KB]


Return to General index

Introduction au Targum Sheni d’Esther (Ms Urbinati 1) - F. Manns
Translation of Targum Esther (Ms. Urbinati 1) was published in LA 46 (1996). This brief introduction focuses on the vocabulary and on the main themes of the Targum Esther, especially on its theme of prayer. Attention is given to the titles of God, the explicit prayers mentioned, and the Aqedah of Isaac with the scope of solving the difficult problem of dating the Targumic traditions.
Pgs. 117-128 [file in pdf format - 100 KB]


Return to General index

Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana, Chapitre 1 et la liturgie chrétienne - S. Verhelst
PRK, a palestinian Jewish collection of homilies of the Byzantine period, begins with Hanuka at the end of December, just like the mravaltavi, the palestinian Christian collection of homilies, of the same period, begins at the end of December. Both florilegium mention at the beginning the theme of the Theotokos, as Baeck had observed long time ago on PRK. Both seem also to mention at the beginning the theme of seven (or eight) skies related to the question of incarnation (Shekhina). The beginning of PRK at Hanuka is a lectio difficilior and it is difficult to admit that it was borrowed from the Christian annual calendar. A common source is a more acceptable solution, which would mean that before the fourth, fifth or even sixth century, there existed a common palestinian milieu between the rabbinic Jews and the gentile Christians for whom “Hanuka” was the first feast of the year, which suggests the existence of an annual and not a trisannual calendar of lections.
Pgs. 129-138 [file in pdf format - 44 KB]


Return to General index

The Exploits of David’s Heroes According to Josephus - C. T. Begg
Two Biblical parallel passages (2Sam 21,15-21//1Chr 20,4-8; 2Sam 23,8-39//1Chr 11,10-47) feature the names and exploits of David’s heroes. This essay provides a detailed study of Josephus’ version of this material (Ant. 7.298-317), comparing it with the Samuel and Chronicles passages as represented by the following major witnesses, MT, Codex Vaticanus and the Lucianic/Antiochene MSS of the LXX, the Vetus Latina, the Vulgate, Targum Jonathan, and the Chronicles Targum. The comparison aims to see what can be learned about such questions as: Did Josephus use both Samuel and Chronicles in composing Ant. 7.298-317? Which text-forms of Samuel and/or Chronicles were available to him? What sort of rewriting techniques has he applied to the sources’ data? What is distinctive about his version vis-à-vis the Biblical accounts of David’s heroes? Finally, what messages might his relecture be intended to convey to Ant.’s double audience, i.e. Gentiles and fellow Jews? The article also makes note of the treatment of the Biblical “hero segments” elsewhere in Jewish-Christian tradition.
Pgs. 139-169 [file in pdf format - 148 KB]


Return to General index

Lo Spirito della profezia nel monachesimo antico - M. C. Paczkowski
This article is a piece of research into the comprehension, understanding, and practical significance of prophecy in ancient monasticism. Monastic literature of that time notes the revelatory activity of the Holy Spirit within an ascetic context. In monastic sources from ancient times, prophecy appears as a characteristic of famous monks and great spiritual masters. However, in some cases the Spirit of prophecy comes under criticism. The biblical figures of Moses, Elijah, Elisha, and Daniel are seen by the ancient monks as “types” and models for those seeking a perfect and spiritual life (i.e. “a prophetic life”). Finally the article makes a presentation of the prophecy and the other spiritual gifts (mystical visions and “knowledge of the hearts”).
Pgs. 171-208 [file in pdf format - 128 KB]


Return to General index

Peter the Iberian. Pilgrimage, Monasticism and Ecclesiastical Politics in Byzantine Palestine - A. Kofsky
The council of Chalcedon in 451 aroused a monophysite opposition in parts of the Eastern Empire and an open revolt in Egypt and Palestine. Following the suppression of the monophysite revolt in Palestine, the monophysites in Jerusalem and in Palestine at large seem to have faced a particular dilemma in light of the new domination of Jerusalem and the holy places by the Chalcedonians, and the persecution and expulsion of monophysite leaders. The predicament of the Palestinian monophysites seems to have created special problems among local monophysites circles with regard to the holy places and to pilgrimage to these sites. These issues are exemplified in the life and times of Peter the Iberian (c. 417-491) - prince, pilgrim, monk, miracle worker, visionary, bishop, and a charismatic monophysite master.
Pgs. 209-222 [file in pdf format - 68 KB]


Return to General index

Coins from the Synagogue of Capharnaum - S. Loffreda
During the archaeological excavations of the synagogue of Capharnaum (1969-1981) more than 24,000 bronze coins were catalogued. The article deals with two basic questions: 1. from which stratigraphic context do these coins come? 2. What archaeological evaluation has been proposed? According to the writer the coins suggest that the monumental synagogue was built in the fifth century AD.
Pgs. 223-244; Pls. 1-4 [file in pdf format - 312 KB]


Return to General index

Il deposito monetale della trincea XII nel cortile della Sinagoga di Cafarnao - E. A. Arslan
A first analysis, which is substantially of a statistical nature of the monetary deposit (20,323 coins in copper module AE3 and AE4) found between 1972-1975 as sealed under the pavement of the Capharnaum Synagogue courtyard, has been completed. The specimens corresponding to 15% of the total of 3,058 coins (only 1,925 [= 62.95%] of them were legible) have been chosen by random selection. The materials turn out to have been issued from II-I centuries B.C., until a little after 476 (the second reign of Zeno). The examination was concentrated on those coins with mint indications (557 = 18.21% of the coins examined) with an attempt to determine the ways and times of flow of supply of the small coins in the area - above-all during the IVth and Vth centuries - by a verification of the situations found in other nuclei recovered inside the Synagogue, in the city of Capharnaum, as well as in a series of other Syro-palestinian centers with their published numismatic documentation (from isolated discoveries). It has also helped us to determine the capability of penetration of products from distant mints (Constantinople, Rome, etc.) in diverse geographical areas, and the absence of contact with peripheral areas of the empire (Gaul, the Balkans), as well as the diverse transpiration of materials produced in the closer mints (Antioch, Alexandria). Besides a series of hypotheses concerning the composition of the monetary stock (for the divisional coins) in diverse centers at different chronological stages, we could also propose a quantitative reading in relation to the proposal of the crisis within the monetary culture of the Vth century. Similar operations have been completed also in relation to the Vth century deposits well-known in the Mediterranean area. It may be proposed that the ensemble was an accumulation of a prolonged period of time (starting from the Theodosian era until a little after 476) of small offerings brought to the Synagogue and intentionally obliterated under the pavement.
Pgs. 245-328; Pls. 5-10 [file in pdf format - 236 KB]


Return to General index

Un ripostiglio di monete d’oro bizantine dalla Sinagoga di Cafarnao - B. Callegher
The excavations conducted within the archaeological area of the Capharnaum Synagogue resulted in the recovery of a small treasury of Byzantine coins, comprised of 3 solidi of Heraclius minted between 616-631 as well as 2 solidi and 2 tremissi of Constans II, produced between 641-668. Therefore the closing of the depository can be dated 668 or the period immediately following. Besides, all the coins originate from the mint of Constantinople. Despite the reduced number of specimens, the discovery reflects the particular monetary conditions of the Syro-palestinian area, evolved between the first phase of the muslim conquest and the monetary reformation of Abd al-Malik. The main characteristics of this period has been the prolonged survival of the gold coins of Heraclius since they being the most frequently found coins both in the depositories and in the archeological sites. At the end two folles of Justin II are presented. Both of them, which represent an issue most common by this emperor, can be dated 572-573.
Pgs.329-338; Pls. 11-12 [file in pdf format - 40 KB]


Return to General index

Khirbet Abu Rish (Beit ‘Anun) - I. Magen - Y. Baruch
The site of Khirbet Abu Rish, to the east of Beit ‘Anun valley, near Hebron, was excavated in 1990 and 1992, resulting in the uncovering of a very well preserved Byzantine monastery. According to this finds this monastery dates back to six-seven century A.D. The site includes a large structure (9 x 19 m), in which three building phases can be discerned. Besides, there is a large courtyard adjoining the structure on the south, containing a cistern that was adapted as a cellar. To the east there is a large winepress in addition to several tombs. The first phase of the building consists comprises of a two room structure. At the second phase, the structure has been enlarged and its final plan took shape. The large room (B) seems to have been adapted for its use as a church hall, with a bema in the east side. The floor of room A, which stands south of the church hall has been covered by a carpet mosaic with a dedicatory inscription. The text is a supplication to the Lord Jesus Christ to remember a certain person, those who pray in (or make pilgrimage), and those who contribute to this place. The inscription thus bears witness to the sanctity of the place for Christians. At the third phase, some more alterations have been made. Six shaft graves of two types were also uncovered. Besides, a tomb, which was found beneath the floor of the central room, resembles a crypt, probably used by the monks of the monastery.
Pgs. 339-358; Pls. 13-16 [file in pdf format - 472 KB]


Return to General index

A Salvage Excavation at the ‘Abudiyah Church in Abud - Samaria - H. Taha

The 1997 excavation at Abud has contributed significant primary data for the study of the archaeology and history of the church of St. Mary at Abud. The stratigraphic evidence provides us with another independent source of information to reconstruct the history of the church in addition to architectural observations and epigraphic evidence. The whole northern wing of the Byzantine church has been uncovered for the first time, throwing light on the original plan of the church. The mosaic pavement of the northern wing is typical of late Byzantine mosaic. The successive history of the church was highlighted, especially that of the early Medieval period, when the church was rebuilt in the mid of the 11th century. It was evident that the northern wing was excluded in the restoration plan and since that time it was used as a cemetery of the Greek Orthodox community of Abud. About 56 cist graves were excavated in this small area, providing information about the burial practices and their differences during a period covering from the Crusader/Ayyubid period to the Late Ottoman period.
Pgs. 359-374; Pls. 17-20 [file in pdf format - 440 KB]


Return to General index

La chiesa di San Paolo a Umm al-Rasas - Kastron Mefaa - M. Piccirillo
The church, which has been named as that of St. Paul on account of an inscription discovered on a tile during the excavation, was constructed and designed with mosaics in the second half of the VIth century at the time of Bishop Sergio. It was used liturgically at least till the end of the second half of VIIIth century. When its liturgical use came to an end, the building was reoccupied regularly for a certain period by a nomadic family who constructed additions both inside and outside of the church. The occupation should not have lasted over Xth century when the roof of the building collapsed. The fall of the arches on the antecedent accumulation came after an indefinite period. The mosaic presented at its center the depiction of the four rivers of Paradise (Gihon, Pishon, Tigris, and Euphrates) and of Earth. Some benefactors along with small trees full of fruits were pictured on a rectangular panel in front of the presbytery. The names of the benefactors, viz., Sergis, Rabbus, and Paul, are specified in the accompanying inscriptions, which were unfortunately disfigured by the iconoclasts.
Pgs. 375-394; Pls. 21-36 [file in pdf format - 1 MB]


Return to General index

Ceramica dalla chiesa di San Paolo e dalla Cappella dei Pavoni a Umm al-Rasas - C. Sanmorì - C. Pappalardo
The pottery presented here comes from the church of St. Paul and from the rooms excavated during the campaign of 1996 with which the church was directly connected through the front door and the door on the south of the church. The major concentration of the discovered pottery was from the secondary use of the church as an ambient of domestic life after the abandonment of the same as a cultic edifice. Similar characteristics are presented by the group of pottery that comes from the chapel of Peacock and from the diakonikon on its north side investigated during the summer of 1992. The chronology ranges form the second half of VIIIth century till the end of IX-Xth centuries A.D.
Pgs. 395-428 [file in pdf format - 572 KB]


Return to General index

A Re-Attribution of the King Herod Agrippa 1 “Year 6” - Issue. The canopy and three ears of corn - K. Lönnqvist
It is generally believed that King Herod Agrippa I of Judaea minted from the Jerusalem mint in 42 A.D. a large series of bronze coins depicting a royal canopy and three ears of corn. The issue has been re-examined here. In the light of the new evidence that has been presented, it can be concluded that the bronze coin type cannot have been minted by King Agrippa I, but by his son, Agrippa II (A.D. - 100), in the year 66/67 A.D. This attribution is based on denominational, paleographical, iconographical, statistical and chronological evidence which all point to the fact that the huge coin series was struck under the authority of King Agrippa II. It seems likely that the coin type was minted starting about September-October 66 A.D. It also appears that the coin series is to be considered as King Agrippa II’s contribution to the cost of taking part in the First Jewish Revolt. The re-attribution means that the mint which issued the coin type was not of Jerusalem, but probably of Caesarea Maritima.
Pgs. 429-440 [file in pdf format - 56 KB]


Return to General index

Allegorical Images in Greek Laudatory Inscriptions - A. Ovadiah
The present article examines a number of Greek inscriptions of poetic character, in which there are allegorical images and expressions of praise to the mosaic art, the bath-house and its hot, warm and cold waters, and to the church in the wider sense of the word, namely the Christianity. This poetic inscriptions, found in Israel and Northern Sinai, were variously composed in the early Byzantine period by an Empress, a clergyman and an anonymous poet. Their language is the Classical Greek, which at that time was probably commanded by educated people and men of letters. This indicates the continuity of the Classical heritage during the early Byzantine period in the Land of Israel and the neighbouring countries. The allegorical images in the inscriptions under discussion indicate on the one hand poetic-artistic tendencies with a Neoplatonic flavour, and on the other hand elements of religious anti-pagan polemic.
Pgs. 441-448; Pls. 37-38 [file in pdf format - 44 KB]


Return to General index



 SBF main

cyber logo footer
Please fill in our Guest book form - Thank you for supporting us!
Created/updated: Sunday, December 16, 2001 by John Abela ofm
This page makes use of Javascript and Cascading Style Sheets - Space by courtesy of Christus Rex
logo